Higher prevalence of FTO gene risk genotypes AA rs9939609, CC rs1421085, and GG rs17817449 and saliva containing Staphylococcus aureus in obese women in Croatia.
Obesity is composed of multifunctional interactions of eating habits, behaviors, microbiota, genetics, and other unknown factors. We hypothesize that correlations occur between the fat mass and obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (FTO SNPs), the composition of microorganisms in the saliva, and life habits in obese women from Zagreb County.
Our results of the analysis of 3 FTO SNPs showed a statistically significant positive correlation among the frequencies of the high-risk genotypes AA rs9939609 (P = .0367), CC rs1421085 (P = .0367), and GG rs17817449 (P = .0065) of the FTO gene in obese cases. Interestingly, 39.13% of obese women were triple homozygous for all 3 risk alleles. Furthermore, the composition of the oral microbiota in the obese group showed a higher occurrence of a major human pathogen, bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, but a significantly low presence of bacteria Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Serratia ureilytica compared with the control group. The investigation also revealed that obese women prefer to consume candy and snacks and more meat and meat-derived products, sleep less than 6 hours per day, and had higher hypertension in comparison with the control group. These results support the hypothesis that female obesity is strongly related to all 3 variants of the FTO gene and perhaps a specific composition of microbiota in saliva due to dietary habits. Considering the bimodal distribution of the SNPs and bacterial content of saliva in obese women taken together are factors to consider for risk of obesity.
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Fat mass and obesity-associated gene; Lifestyle; Obesity, oral microbiota; Single nucleotide polymorphisms